United State of Israel
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"A Unified Israel is a Strong Israel"
Arab persecution of Jews



When Palestinian Jews Were Under Muslim Rule

 
Originally posted May 15, 2007

In a post from December, 2005, Chardal writes about Life Under Muslim Rule in general, and has a section focusing on what life was like in then-Palestine for Jews.
THE HOLY LAND UNDER MUSLIM RULE

Since the Arabian invasion of Palestine in the seventh century, Jews and Christians were allowed to remain alive, between attacks, to be a source of funds obtained by special taxes and extortions, and to serve as helpless scapegoats for the Muslim masses. This policy continued under successive waves of other Muslim non-Arab conquerors of the Holy Land, as well.

The lawful humiliation of the non-Muslim was a fact of life. The degree of harshness of the persecution depended on the whim of the particular ruler.


Arab dominion over non-Muslims was reminiscent of the nation of Amalek of biblical infamy:
"Amalek represents that principle which judges the dignity of men and nations solely in terms of visible power and domination. It is willing to condone any act as long as it results in successful conquest. It will tolerate only that which it fears or that which it can safely despise" (Rabbi S.R. Hirsch, Collected Writings II, p.414).
From the beginning of Muslim Turkish rule in 1516, Jews had to pass Muslims on their left side, the side of Satan (David Landes, "Palestine Before the Zionists." Commentary, February 1976). Sultan Murad III decreed death for all Jews of the Turkish Ottoman Empire, but later commuted the sentence (Jacob de Haas, History of Palestine, New York, 1934).

In 1586, the famous Ramban Synagogue of the Old City of Jerusalem was seized by the Muslim authorities. This had been the last synagogue in Jerusalem remaining in Jewish hands (Ben Gurion, Israel, Tel Aviv, 1971).

One single Jew survived the Muslim massacre in the holy city of Safad in 1660 (Jacob de Haas, History of Palestine, New York, 1934).

In 1775, Muslim mob violence against the Jews of Hebron was incited by the infamous blood libel (Samuel Katz, Battleground: Fact and Fantasy in Palestine, New York, 1973).

The Albanian born Mamluk "Arab", called "the Butcher", terrorized the land with his sadistic exploits through the late 1700's (Jacob de Haas, History of Palestine, New York, 1934).

To be permitted to pray by the Wailing Wall, the Jews paid a high annual rent to the Arab whose property adjoined it. They paid protection money to Muslim officials, already paid by the Turkish Government, for fear of desecration of the ancient Jewish cemetery on the Mount of Olives, and of Rachel's Tomb (David Landes, Palestine Before the Zionists, 1976).

In the 1830's, during the brief Egyptian reign over Palestine, the Jews found themselves caught between the ravages of the Egyptian soldiers and the multi-ethnic Muslim rebels who fought them:
"Forty thousand fellahin rushed on Jerusalem... The mob entered, and looted the city for five or six days. The Jews were the worst sufferers, their homes were sacked and their women were violated" (Jacob de Haas, History of Palestine, New York, 1934).
News of the Damascus blood libel of 1840 brought heightened waves of persecution and murder of Jews throughout Palestine (Moshe Ma'oz, ed., Studies in Palestine During the Ottoman Period, Jerusalem, 1975).

In 1914, after returning from his heinous mass slaughter of the Armenian people, Turkish commander Baha-ud Did threatened to do the same to the Jews if he ever got the chance. Fierce persecutions ensued. Use of the Hebrew language was banned. Entire Jewish families were thrown in prison. Jewish males were forced into labor battalions. Farm carts and animals were confiscated just before harvest time. The entire Jewish population of Jaffa was expelled on Passover, 1915. Resistors were hanged. Thousands wandered helplessly on the roads, starving (Martin Gilbert, Exile and Return, New York, 1978).

During the last few years of Muslim rulership over Palestine, torture for a Jew was the norm upon arrest. By the time the British routed the Turkish Ottomans from Palestine in 1917, the entire country, including the new Jewish settlements, had been plundered.

The documented Muslim excesses committed during the corrupt Turkish rule over Palestine from 1516 to 1917, are too hideous and numerous to record (See Joan Peters; From Time Immemorial p.190 et seq.).

Something to keep in mind when Palestinian apologists hearken back to the good old days when Jews were subservient to Muslims.

Life under muslim rule

 

DB claims that unlike Jewish life in christian Europe, life for Jews under muslim rule was just dandy. While it is true that christian Europe was historically the most violent towards the Jews, this by no means means that life under the Arabs was good. Here is a brief overview of the Jew in Islam and under the rule of Arab society:

JEWISH LIFE UNDER ARAB RULE

According to Arab propagandists, the main issue of the Arab-Israel conflict is "the Palestinian state". This is a myth. As will be clearly demonstrated, the main issue is, rather, the deep, traditional and religious hatred of the Arab for the Jew.

In 1948, before 800,000 Jews fled, 990,000 Jews lived throughout the Arab world. Many Jewish communities had been established 2,400 years before. Some, such as the Yemenite Jewish community, date back from the time of the destruction of the First Jewish Temple by the Babylonians, in the fifth century before the common era.

Arab propaganda would have the world believe that there exists a long tradition of Arab tolerance. In the words of the late King Faisal of Saudi Arabia, in 1973: "Before the Jewish state was established,there existed nothing to harm good relations between Arabs and Jews."

And, according to former PLO head, Yasser Arafat: "We are not against the Jews. On the contrary, we are Semites and we have been living with each other in peace and fraternity, Muslims, Jews and Christians for many centuries."

But numerous scholarly works and eye-witness reports document the long history of violence, oppression and humiliation suffered by Jews and Christians in the Arab lands from the rise of Islam in the seventh century, until the present day.

THE RISE OF ISLAM

In the Arabian city of Medina, Islam's founder, Muhammad, at first courted the favor of the long-respected Jewish community. He even adopted several Jewish practices, such as the fast of Yom Kippur and prayer in the direction of Jerusalem, in the hope of acquiring Jewish converts for his new religion.
When it became clear to him that the Jews were not interested in trading their faith, his attitude toward the Jews soured. Muhammad's resentment was canonized in Islam's holy book, the Koran. Although also containing some earlier, benign references to Jews, the Koran remains decidedly anti-Jewish:

"The most vehement of mankind in hostility are the Jews and the Idolaters... 
distorting with their tongues and slandering religion...
the greediest of mankind...
desire nothing but your ruin...
commit evil and become engrossed in sin...
Allah hath cursed them for their disbelief.
Taste ye the punishment of burning.
Those who disbelieve our revelations, we shall expose them to the fire.
As often as their skins are consumed, we shall exchange them for fresh skins that they may taste the torment."

Thus, the holy book of Islam, the Koran, presents the Jewish people as inherently evil, treacherous, and as infidels of their prophet, Muhammad, Islam's founder.

Furthermore, from among other statements of Muhammad in the Hadith: 
"The resurrection of the dead will not come until the Muslims will war with the Jews and the Muslims will kill them... The trees and rocks will say, "O Muslim, O Abdulla, here is a Jew behind me, come and kill him."


ISLAMIC ATTITUDES BEAR BITTER FRUIT

Muhammad's new attitude was expressed in practical deed. Upon the thriving Jewish oasis community of Khaibar, north of Mecca and Medina, Muhammad inflicted inhuman atrocities (Israel Ben Zeev, Jews in Arabia). Furthermore, he hideously annihilated the Quraizan Jews of Arabia -- adults and children.

It was Quraizan Jews who had established the prosperous town of Yathrib that attracted an infiltration of the pagan Arabs before the rise of Islam. (This pattern of Jewish industriousness attracting an Arab work force was to repeat itself over and over during the present century.) The Moslem Arabs, now united under Muhammad, eliminated the Jews and expropriated their wealth. The town's name was changed to Medina -- Islam's second-holiest city (Bernard Lewis, Arabs in History, New York, 1966).

This pattern of plundering the possessions of Jews under Arab control was to continue into this century. It is justified by the Koran:
"Some you slew and others you took captive. Allah made you masters of the Jews' land, their houses, and their goods..." (the Koran, Surah 33, Dawood translation).

"Make war... until they pay tribute in a state of humiliation" (the Koran 9:29).

Muhammad's fame spread; the pagan Arabs flocked to him; the Arabian Muslim creed gathered an earth-shattering momentum (Alfred Guillaume, Islam, Baltimore, 1954).

That momentum propelled the Arabs into control of vast territories, far beyond the Arabian peninsula. The Arab conquests constituted a further fulfillment of the biblical verses:

"And he [Ishmael, father of the Arab people] will be a wildman. His hand will be against every man, and every man's hand against him, and in the face of all his brethren will he dwell" (Genesis XVI, 12), "...and I will make him into a large nation" (Genesis XXI, 18).


THE JEW IN ISLAMIC LAW

Muhammad's successor, Omar, codified the twelve laws under which a non-Muslim, or dhimmi, would be suffered to exist in the Arab world. Calculated to impoverish and humiliate, these Islamic laws were enforced on pain of death.

Among other restrictions, Jews were forbidden to touch the Koran, practise Judaism in public, or own a horse. Jews were forced to wear particular clothing, including a piece of yellow cloth as a badge. Expressions of grief at Jewish burials were not to reach the ears of Muslims.

By Islamic law, Jewish or Christian testimony was meaningless against a Muslim. On the other hand, the dhimmi lived in constant fear of the Muslim, for there would be no way of defending himself against an accusation of cursing Islam.

Although a Muslim was subject to capital punishment for the murder of a fellow Muslim, the murder of a dhimmi would, at most, cost him a fine.

For this Arab "tolerance", the infidel dhimmi paid extra taxes as prescribed in the Koran:
"Fight against those who believe not in Allah... until they pay the tribute readily, being brought low."

And they did fight; with a brutality that has become a trademark. The helpless Jews in Arab lands repeatedly tasted Arab savagery. Those typical hatchet-and-knife pogroms were visited with regularity also upon the dhimmi Jews of the Holy Land.

THE HOLY LAND UNDER MUSLIM RULE

Since the Arabian invasion of Palestine in the seventh century, Jews and Christians were allowed to remain alive, between attacks, to be a source of funds obtained by special taxes and extortions, and to serve as helpless scapegoats for the Muslim masses. This policy continued under successive waves of other Muslim non-Arab conquerors of the Holy Land, as well.

The lawful humiliation of the non-Muslim was a fact of life. The degree of harshness of the persecution depended on the whim of the particular ruler.

Arab dominion over non-Muslims was reminiscent of the nation of Amalek of biblical infamy:
"Amalek represents that principle which judges the dignity of men and nations solely in terms of visible power and domination. It is willing to condone any act as long as it results in successful conquest. It will tolerate only that which it fears or that which it can safely despise" (Rabbi S.R. Hirsch, Collected Writings II, p.414).


From the beginning of Muslim Turkish rule in 1516, Jews had to pass Muslims on their left side, the side of Satan (David Landes, "Palestine Before the Zionists." Commentary, February 1976). Sultan Murad III decreed death for all Jews of the Turkish Ottoman Empire, but later commuted the sentence (Jacob de Haas, History of Palestine, New York, 1934).

In 1586, the famous Ramban Synagogue of the Old City of Jerusalem was seized by the Muslim authorities. This had been the last synagogue in Jerusalem remaining in Jewish hands (Ben Gurion, Israel, Tel Aviv, 1971).

One single Jew survived the Muslim massacre in the holy city of Safad in 1660 (Jacob de Haas, History of Palestine, New York, 1934).

In 1775, Muslim mob violence against the Jews of Hebron was incited by the infamous blood libel (Samuel Katz, Battleground: Fact and Fantasy in Palestine, New York, 1973).

The Albanian born Mamluk "Arab", called "the Butcher", terrorized the land with his sadistic exploits through the late 1700's (Jacob de Haas, History of Palestine, New York, 1934).

To be permitted to pray by the Wailing Wall, the Jews paid a high annual rent to the Arab whose property adjoined it. They paid protection money to Muslim officials, already paid by the Turkish Government, for fear of desecration of the ancient Jewish cemetery on the Mount of Olives, and of Rachel's Tomb (David Landes, Palestine Before the Zionists, 1976).

In the 1830's, during the brief Egyptian reign over Palestine, the Jews found themselves caught between the ravages of the Egyptian soldiers and the multi-ethnic Muslim rebels who fought them:
"Forty thousand fellahin rushed on Jerusalem... The mob entered, and looted the city for five or six days. The Jews were the worst sufferers, their homes were sacked and their women were violated" (Jacob de Haas, History of Palestine, New York, 1934).


News of the Damascus blood libel of 1840 brought heightened waves of persecution and murder of Jews throughout Palestine (Moshe Ma'oz, ed., Studies in Palestine During the Ottoman Period, Jerusalem, 1975).

In 1914, after returning from his heinous mass slaughter of the Armenian people, Turkish commander Baha-ud Did threatened to do the same to the Jews if he ever got the chance. Fierce persecutions ensued. Use of the Hebrew language was banned. Entire Jewish families were thrown in prison. Jewish males were forced into labor battalions. Farm carts and animals were confiscated just before harvest time. The entire Jewish population of Jaffa was expelled on Passover, 1915. Resistors were hanged. Thousands wandered helplessly on the roads, starving (Martin Gilbert, Exile and Return, New York, 1978).

During the last few years of Muslim rulership over Palestine, torture for a Jew was the norm upon arrest. By the time the British routed the Turkish Ottomans from Palestine in 1917, the entire country, including the new Jewish settlements, had been plundered.

The documented Muslim excesses committed during the corrupt Turkish rule over Palestine from 1516 to 1917, are too hideous and numerous to record (See Joan Peters; From Time Immemorial p.190 et seq.).


List of massacres in Palestine

Palestine is a name, among others, for the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, and various adjoining lands.[1] The region is also known as the Land of Israel and the Holy Land.[2][3]

Name Date Location Responsible Party Deaths Notes
Siege of Jerusalem (614) 614 Jerusalem Persian Amy ordered byShahrbaraz 66,509[4] Christians were massacred by Persian invaders
Siege of Jerusalem (1099) 15 July 1099 Jerusalem European Crusaders over 10,000 Muslims, Jews and Christians  
1517 Hebron attacks 1517 Hebron Turkish soldiers Unknown Jews were attacked, beaten, and raped, and many were killed in their homes[5]
1517 Safed attacks 1517 Safed Muslim mobs Unknown Many Jews subsequently fled the city[6]
1660 destruction of Tiberias 1660 Tiberias Druze rebels Unknown Resulted in Jewish population abandoning Tiberias[7][8]
1660 destruction of Safed 1660 Safed Arab rioters Unknown, estimated thousands[9]  
Siege of Jaffa 7 March 1799 Jaffa Napoleon'sArmy 2,440-4,100 Ottoman prisoners were executed on the beaches south of the town
Taking of Hebron by Egypt/ 1834 Hebron massacre 1834 Hebron Egyptian troops Over 500 Egyptian soldiers did not distinguish between inhabitants; for three hours, troops plundered, killed, raped and maimed Muslim and Jew alike.[10]
1834 looting of Safed 1834 Safed Arab rioters unknown Reports detail torture and mass-rape of Jewish population[11]
1838 Druze attack on Safed 1838 Safed Druze rebels Unknown Druze rebels and Muslim mobs plundered Jewish quarters for three days[10][12]

List of killings and massacres committed in Mandate Palestine[edit]

Name Date Responsible party Casualties notes
Battle of Tel Hai March 1, 1920 Arabs 13 Jews killed;[1] 5 Arabs killed.
Nebi Musa riots April 4–7, 1920 Arabs 9 5 Jews, 4 Arabs killed; 216 Jews, 18 Arabs, 7 Britons wounded[1][2][3]
Jaffa riots May 1–7, 1921 Arabs 95 48 Arabs, 47 Jews killed; 140 Jews, 73 Arabs wounded.
NA November 2, 1921 Arabs 5 5 Jews killed in Jerusalem in stabbing attack. Multiple wounded, including women and children.[4]
Palestine Riots August 23–26, 1929 Arabs 249 133 Jews, 116 Arabs killed; 339 Jews, 232 Arabs wounded [5][1][2][3][6]
Hebron massacre August 24, 1929 Arabs 67 67 Jews killed; 58 Jews wounded
Safed massacre August 29, 1929 Arabs 20 18–20 Jews killed; 80 Jews wounded (included in previous entry)[6]
1933 Palestine riots October 28, 1933 Arabs 20
The Bloody Day in Jaffa (Hebrew: יום הדמים ביפו) April 19–20, 1936 Arabs 21 9 Jews killed, 40 Jews wounded (11 critically) in Arab attack in Jaffa. Police killed two attackers. Further 7 Jews and 3 Arabs killed the next day[7][8][9]
Labor Strike Revolt April 20 – October 12, 1936 Arabs, Jews, British authorities 253 138 Arabs, 82 Jews, 33 British killed, 369 Jews wounded (110 critically)[1][10]
NA July 7, 1937 Unknown 27 6 Jews and 21 Arabs killed in Haifa when bomb is thrown into a crowd at a marketplace. 11 Jews and 52 Arabs wounded [11][12]
NA August 13, 1937 Arabs 4 4 members of a Jewish family, 3 children, shot dead by Arabs who broke into their home in Safed[13]
NA November 9, 1937 Arabs 5 5 Jewish Keren Kayemet workers killed near Har Haruach by an Arab ambush. Ma'ale HaHamisha was named in their honor.[14]
N/A November 14, 1937 Jewish militants (Irgun) 10 10 Arabs killed by Irgun units launching attacks around Jerusalem, ("Black Sunday")[15][16]
N/A 28 March 1938 Arabs 6 6 Jewish passengers killed by Arabs while traveling from Haifa to Safed.[17]
N/A April 12, 1938 Jewish militants (Irgun) 4 2 Arabs and 2 British policemen were killed by a bomb in a train in Haifa.[16]
N/A May 24, 1938 Jewish militants (Irgun) 3 3 Arabs were shot and killed in Haifa.[16]
N/A June 26, 1938 Jewish militants (Irgun) 7 7 Arabs were killed by a bomb in Jaffa.[16]
N/A June (late), 1938 Jewish militants (Irgun) 0 Unknown number of Arabs killed by a bomb that was thrown into a crowded Arab market place in Jerusalem.[18]
N/A July 5, 1938 Jewish militants (Irgun) 7 7 Arabs were killed in several shooting attacks in Tel-Aviv.[16]
N/A July 5, 1938 Jewish militants (Irgun) 3 3 Arabs were killed by a bomb detonated in a bus in Jerusalem. Further Arab killed in another attack in Jerusalem[16]
N/A July 6, 1938 Jewish militants (Irgun) 23 18 Arabs and 5 Jews were killed by two simultaneous bombs in the Arab melon market in Haifa. More than 60 people were wounded.[16][19][20]
N/A July 8, 1938 Jewish militants (Irgun) 4 4 Arabs were killed by a bomb in Jerusalem.[16]
N/A July 16, 1938 Jewish militants (Irgun) 10 10 Arabs were killed by a bomb at a marketplace in Jerusalem.[16]
N/A July 25, 1938 Jewish militants (Irgun) 43 43 Arabs were killed by a bomb at a marketplace in Haifa.[16][21]
N/A August 16, 1938 Arabs 3 A Jewish family was kidnapped by Arabs in Atlit. 3 killed.[22][23]
N/A August 26, 1938 Jewish militants (Irgun) 24 24 Arabs were killed by a bomb at a marketplace in Jaffa.[16]
N/A September 14, 1938 Arabs 3 3 Jews killed in a bomb attack and ambush on a private vehicle near Nir David then: Tel Amal)[24] Several attackers killed by Britons.
N/A February 27, 1939 Jewish militants (Irgun) 33 33 Arabs were killed in multiple attacks, incl. 24 by bomb in Arab market in Suk Quarter of Haifa and 4 by bomb in Arab vegetable market in Jerusalem.[25]
N/A May 29, 1939 Jewish militants (Irgun) 5 5 Arabs were killed by a mine detonated at the Rex cinema in Jerusalem.[16]
N/A May 29, 1939 Jewish militants (Irgun) 5 5 Arabs were shot and killed during a raid on the village of Biyar 'Adas.[16]
N/A June 2, 1939 Jewish militants (Irgun) 5 5 Arabs were killed by a bomb at the Jaffa Gate in Jerusalem.[16][26]
N/A June 16, 1939 Jewish Militants (Irgun) 6 6 Arabs were killed in several attacks in Jerusalem.[16]
N/A June 19, 1939 Jewish Militants (Irgun) 20 20 Arabs were killed by explosives mounted on a donkey at a marketplace in Haifa.[16][27]
N/A June 29, 1939 Jewish Militants (Irgun) 13 13 Arabs were killed in several shooting attacks around Jaffa during a one-hour period.[16][28]
N/A July 20, 1939 Jewish Militants (Irgun) 6 6 Arabs were killed in several attacks in Tel-Aviv.[16]
N/A July 20, 1939 Jewish Militants (Irgun) 3 3 Arabs were killed in Rehovot.[16]
1938 Tiberias pogrom October 2, 1938 Arabs 19 19 Jews were killed.[29]
NA June 11, 1941 Frenchmen 20 20 Jews killed in Tel Aviv during French air raid [30]
N/A September 27, 1944 Jewish militants (Irgun) 0 Unknown number of casualties, around 150 Irgun members attacked four British police stations[31]
N/A November 1, 1945 Jewish militants (Irgun) 0 locomotives destroyed in Lydda station. Two staff, one soldier and one policeman killed.[32]
N/A December 27, 1945 Jewish militants (Irgun) 7 3 British policemen and 4 Basuto soldiers killed during the bombing of British CID headquarters in Jerusalem; 1 British soldier killed during attack of British army camp in north Tel Aviv[33][34]
King David Hotel bombing July 22, 1946 Jewish militants (Irgun) 91 91 killed, including 41 Arabs, 28 Britons, and 17 Jews; 40-45 wounded[35][36]
N/A January 12, 1947 Jewish militants (Irgun) 4 4 killed in bombing of British headquarters.[37]
N/A March 1, 1947 Jewish militants (Irgun) 17 17 British officers killed, during raid and explosion.[38]
N/A September 26, 1947 Jewish militants (Irgun) 4 4 British policemen killed in Irgun bank robbery.[37]
N/A September 29, 1947 Jewish militants (Irgun) 13 13 killed, 53 wounded in attack on British police station.[37]
1947 Jerusalem riots December 2, 1947 Arabs 14 8 Jews Reported Killed[39][40]
al-Tira December 12, 1947 Jewish militants 13 13 Arabs killed, 10 wounded[41][42]
N/A December 12, 1947 Jewish militants (Irgun) 20 20 killed, 5 wounded by barrel bomb at Damascus Gate.[43]
N/A December 13, 1947 Jewish militants (Irgun) 16 16 Arabs killed; 67 Arabs wounded from bombings in Jerusalem and Jaffa; Irgun also burns down 100 Arab homes in Jaffa[1]
N/A (See Beit Nabala) December 14, 1947 Arab Legion 13 13 Jews killed (some sources say 14); 9 Jews, 2 Britons, 1 Arab wounded in attack on military convoy near Lydda[1]
N/A December 16, 1947 Jewish militants (Irgun) 10 10 killed by bomb at Noga Cinema in Jaffa.[44]
al-Khisas massacre December 18, 1947 Jewish militants (Haganah) 10 10 Arabs killed[1]
N/A December 24, 1947 Arab snipers, Jewish militants 8 4 Jews killed in Haifa by snipers, 4 Arabs killed in reprisals[1]
N/A December 26, 1947 Arab militants 0 7 Jews killed while driving in convoy to Jerusalem[1]
N/A December 28, 1947 Arab Snipers, Jewish militants 5 5 Jews killed in Bab el Wad by snipers, 5 Arabs killed in reprisals[1]
N/A December 29, 1947 Arab militants, Jewish militants (Irgun) 4 4 Jews killed in Tel Aviv from mortar and sniper fire, 13 Arabs killed in Jerusalem in Irgun bombing[1][1][45]
Bomb thrown on Damascus GateCafé in Jerusalem December 29, 1947 Jewish militants (Irgun) 13 11 Arabs, 2 Britons killed[1][46] Uri Milstein reported 15 casualties from the bombing in the Palestine Post.[47]
Haifa Oil Refinery massacre December 30, 1947 Jewish militants (Irgun), Arabs 39 Arabs beat 39 Jews to death and injured 49 after an Irgun bombing which killed 6[1]
Balad al-Shaykh massacre January 1, 1948 Jewish militants (Palmach) 50 17–70 Arabs killed in Haifa[1]
N/A January 3, 1948 Arab militants 4 4 Jews killed in Haifa[1]
N/A January 3, 1948 Arab militants 4 3 Jews, 1 Briton killed in Jerusalem[1]
Bombing of Arab National Committee HQ January 4, 1948 Jewish militants (Stern Gang) 14 14 Arabs killed; 100 Arabs wounded[46]
Semiramis Hotel bombing January 5, 1948 Jewish militants (Haganah) 20 20 Arabs killed in Jerusalem[48]
N/A January 5, 1948 Jewish militants (Irgun) 14 14 Arabs killed and 19 injured by truck bomb outside the 3-storey 'Serrani', Jaffa's built Ottoman Town Hall[49]
N/A January 5, 1948 Arabs, Jews 4 4 Arabs killed after attacking Jewish quarter in Safed[1]
Jaffa Gate bombing in Jerusalem January 7, 1948 Jewish militants (Irgun) 18 15–20 Arabs killed[1][50]
N/A January 9, 1948 Arab militants 35 35 Jews killed near Kfar Etzion[1]
N/A January 10, 1948 Arab militants 11 11 Jews killed, 1 decapitated near Yavne[1]
N/A January 14, 1948 Arab militants 7 7 Jews, 2 Britons killed in Haifa[1]
The 35 Heroes of Gush Etzion (Hebrew: ל"ה גיבורי גוש עציון) January 15, 1948 Arab militants 35 35 Jewish members of a relief force to Gush Etzion killed near Hebron by Arab militants.[51]
N/A January 20, 1948 Arab militants 8 8 Jews killed in Yehiam[1]
N/A January 22, 1948 Arab militants 7 7 Jews killed near Yazur[1]
N/A January 25, 1948 Arab militants 10 10 Jews killed[1]
N/A January 27, 1948 British soldiers 4 4 Arabs killed in Gaza[1]
N/A February 3, 1948 Arab militants 6 6 Jews killed while riding buses in Haifa[1]
N/A February 7, 1948 Arabs, Jews 6 3 Arabs, 3 Jews killed in Haifa[1]
N/A February 8, 1948 Arabs 6 6 Jews killed in Jerusalem[1]
N/A February 8, 1948 Arab militants 3 3 Jews killed in Tel Aviv[1]
N/A February 10, 1948 Jewish militants (Irgun) 7 7 Arabs killed near Ras el Ain after selling cows in Tel Aviv[52]
N/A February 12, 1948 Arabs 4 4 Jews killed in Jerusalem[1]
N/A February 15, 1948 Arab militants, Jewish militants 8 5 Arabs, 3 Jews killed[1]
Sa'sa' village ambush in the Safaddistrict February 14, 1948 Jewish militants (Palmach) 11 11 Arabs killed[53]
N/A February 17, 1948 Arab militants, Jewish militants 8 5 Arabs, 3 Jews killed[1]
N/A February 17, 1948 Arab militants 57 57 Arabs killed while taking part in attack on Jewish settlements Tirat Tzvi, Sde Eliahu, Ein HaNatziv[1]
Ramla vegetable market bombing February 18, 1948 Jewish militants (Irgun) 12 12 killed, 43 wounded[54]
N/A February 19, 1948 Arab militants 4 4 Jews killed while riding buses in Haifa[1]
N/A February 21, 1948 Jewish militants 4 4 Arabs killed in Haifa[1]
Ben Yehuda Street bombing February 23, 1948 Arab militants, British deserters 55 55 Jews killed[1]
N/A February 25, 1948 Arab militants 3 3 Jews killed on road between Ramle and Tel Aviv[1]
N/A February 28, 1948 Arab militants 7 6 Arabs, 1 Jew killed during attack on Jewish village Kfar Sava[1]
N/A February 18, 1948 Arab militants 4 4 Arabs killed while participating in attack on Jewish settlement Mitzpe[1]
Rehovot Train bombing March 1, 1948 Jewish militants 28 28 Britons killed[1]
Bevingrad Officers Club bombing March 1, 1948 Jewish militants (Irgun) 20 20 Britons killed; 30 Britons wounded[2]
N/A March 1, 1948 Arab militants 4 4 Jews killed on Tel Aviv-Jerusalem road[1]
N/A March 2, 1948 Arab militants 9 6 Arabs, 3 Jews killed during Arab attack on Tel-Aviv Jerusalem road[1]
N/A March 4, 1948 Arab militants 16 16 Jews killed on Jerusalem-Atarot road[1]
N/A March 9, 1948 Arab militants 3 3 Arabs killed while participating in attack on Jewish settlement Yehiam[1]
N/A March 11, 1948 Jews, Arabs 5 4 Arabs, 1 Jew killed in Tiberias[1]
Jewish Agency bombing March 11, 1948 Arab militants 13 13 Jews killed[1]
N/A March 14, 1948 Arab militants 7 7 Jews killed near Faluja[1]
N/A March 14, 1948 Jews, Arabs 5 4 Arabs, 1 Jew killed in Tiberias[1]
N/A March 18, 1948 Arab militants 9 5 Britons, 4 Jews killed in convoy near Acre[1]
N/A March 20, 1948 Arabs 7 7 Jews killed at Ein Harod[1]
N/A March 21, 1948 Arabs 6 6 Jews killed on Rosh Pinna-Safed road[1]
N/A March 22, 1948 Arab militants 24 4 Jews, 20 Arabs during attack on Jewish settlement Nitzanim[1]
N/A March 24, 1948 Jewish militants 36 36 Arabs killed near Tulkarem[1]
N/A March 26, 1948 Arab militants 8 6 Arabs, 2 Jews killed in attack on Jewish convoy near Gaza[1]
N/A March 28, 1948 Arab militants 6 6 Arabs killed while participating in attack on Jewish convoy near Rehovot[1]
N/A March 28, 1948 Arab militants 6 6 Arabs killed while participating in attack on Jewish convoy near Safed[1]
Cairo-Haifa train bombing March 31, 1948 Jewish militants (Lehi) 40 40 Arabs killed; 60 Arabs wounded[1]
Massacre in an orange grove in Lydda April 1, 1948 Jewish militias 11 11 Arab laborers killed[55]
Deir Yassin massacre April 9, 1948 Jewish militants (Irgun) 100-250 100-254 Arabs killed[56][57][58]
Hadassah medical convoy massacre April 13, 1948 Arab militants 78 78 Jews (nurses, doctors, and patients) killed[59][60]
Cairo-Haifa Train bombing April 23, 1948 Jewish militants (Lehi) 8 8 Britons killed; 27 Britons wounded[2]
Sorona Police Station bombing April 25, 1948 Jewish militants (Lehi) 4 4 Britons killed[2]
Ein al Zeitun massacre May 3, 1948 Jewish militants (Palmach) 55 37–70 Arab prisoners
Kfar Etzion massacre May 13, 1948 Arab militants andArab Legion 140 127–157 Jews killed[1]
Abu Shusha May 14, 1948 Israeli 52 52

See also[edit]


1980s[edit]

1989 (1 attack)[edit]

Name Date Location Death toll Notes
Bus 405 suicide attack July 6, 1989 Near Kiryat Yearim 16 Carried out by Palestinian Islamic Jihad.

1990s[edit]

1993 (2 bombings)[edit]

Name Date Location Death toll Notes
Mehola Junction bombing April 16, 1993 Mehola junction 1 Hamas claimed responsibility.[6] Carried out together with Palestinian Islamic Jihad.
Beit El car bomb October 4, 1993 Near Beit El 29 injured Hamas member Sulayman Idan was responsible.[7][8]

1994 (5 bombings)[edit]

Name Date Location Death toll Notes
Afula Bus suicide bombing April 6, 1994 Afula 8 Hamas claimed responsibility. Carried out together with Palestinian Islamic Jihad.
Hadera bus station suicide bombing April 13, 1994 Hadera 5 Hamas claimed responsibility. Carried out together with Palestinian Islamic Jihad.
Dizengoff Street bus bombing October 19, 1994 Tel Aviv 22 Attributed to Hamas.
Netzarim Junction bicycle bombing November 11, 1994 Netzarim 3 Hamas claimed responsibility. Carried out together with Palestinian Islamic Jihad.
Jerusalem Binyanei Hauma suicide bombing December 25, 1994 Jerusalem 13 injured Attributed to Hamas.

1995 (4 bombings)[edit]

Name Date Location Death toll Notes
Beit Lid massacre January 22, 1995 Beit Lid Junction 21 Two bombers. One detonated at rescue party. Palestinian Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
Kfar Darom bus attack April 9, 1995 Vicinity of Kfar Darom 8 Palestinian Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
Ramat Gan bus 20 bombing July 24, 1995 Ramat Gan 6 Hamas claimed responsibility.
Ramat Eshkol bus bombing August 21, 1995 Jerusalem 4 Police Chief Noam Eisenman was killed. Hamas claimed responsibility.

1996 (4 bombings)[edit]

Name Date Location Death toll Notes
Ashkelon bus station bombing February 25, 1996 Ashqelon 1 Hamas claimed responsibility.
First Jerusalem bus 18 suicide bombing February 25, 1996 Jerusalem Central Bus station 26 Hamas claimed responsibility.
Second Jerusalem bus 18 suicide bombing March 3, 1996 Jaffa street, Jerusalem 19 Hamas claimed responsibility.
Dizengoff Center suicide bombing March 4, 1996 Tel Aviv 13 Attributed to Hamas. Carried out together with Palestinian Islamic Jihad.

1997 (3 bombings)[edit]

Name Date Location Death toll Notes
Café Apropo bombing March 21, 1997 Tel Aviv 3 Hamas claimed responsibility.
1st Mahane Yehuda Market attack July 30, 1997 Jerusalem main market 16 Hamas claimed responsibility.
Ben Yehuda Street Bombing September 4, 1997 Jerusalem Ben Yehuda Street 5 Hamas claimed responsibility.

1998 (2 bombings)[edit]

Name Date Location Death toll Notes
1st Kfar Darom bombing October 29, 1998 Gaza Strip 1 Hamas claimed responsibility.
Jerusalem bombing November 6, 1998 Jerusalem 2 20 wounded. Two Islamic Jihad suicide bombers.[9]

1999 (2 bombings)[edit]

Name Date Location Death toll Notes
Egged bus 960 bombing September 5, 1999 Tveria None Hamas claimed responsibility.
Haifa Central Bus Station bombing September 5, 1999 Haifa None Hamas claimed responsibility.

2000s[edit]

2000 (5 bombings)[edit]

Name Date Location Death toll Notes
Gaza bombing October 26, 2000 Gaza Strip 1 injured Youth suicide bomber on bike. Palestinian Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
2nd Mahane Yehuda Market attack November 2, 2000 Jerusalem 2 Booby-trapped car. Palestinian Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
2nd Kfar Darom bombing November 20, 2000 Gaza Strip 2 Hamas claimed responsibility.
Hadera main street bombing November 22, 2000 Hadera 2 Booby-trapped car. Hamas claimed responsibility.
Mehola bombing December 22, 2000 Mehola Junction 3 injured Hamas claimed responsibility.

2001 (40 bombings)[edit]

Name Date Location Death toll Notes
Netanya centre bombing January 1, 2001 Netanya 60 injured Hamas claimed responsibility.
Tayibe Bridge bombing January 30, 2001 Tayibe 2 injured Palestinian Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
Beit Yisrael bombing February 8, 2001 Jerusalem 2 injured Hamas claimed responsibility.
Mei Ami junction bombing March 1, 2001 Vadi Ara 1 Hamas claimed responsibility.
Netanya bombing March 4, 2001 Netanya 3 Hamas claimed responsibility.
Talpiot industrial zone bombing March 27, 2001 Jerusalem 7 injured Palestinian Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
Egged bus 6 bombing March 27, 2001 French Hill, Jerusalem 28 injured Hamas claimed responsibility.
Mifgash Shalom attack March 28, 2001 Mifgash Shalom gas station, Kfar Saba 2 Hamas claimed responsibility.
Kfar Saba bombing April 22, 2001 Kfar Saba 1 Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
Or Yehuda bombing April 23, 2001 Near Ben Gurion Airport 8 injured Hamas claimed responsibility.
Nablus school bus bombing April 29, 2001 NablusWest Bank None Hamas claimed responsibility.
HaSharon Mall suicide bombing May 18, 2001 HaSharon shopping mall, Netanya 5 Hamas claimed responsibility.
Hadera Mall bombing May 25, 2001 Hadera None Hamas claimed responsibility.
Hadera bus station suicide bombing May 25, 2001 Central bus station, Hadera 65 injured 2 Palestinians within a car bombPalestinian Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
Jerusalem Center bombing May 27, 2001 Jerusalem None PFLP claimed responsibility.
Jaffa Road bombing May 27, 2001 Jerusalem 30 injured Palestinian Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
Netanya school bombing May 30, 2001 Netanya 8 injured Palestinian Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
Dolphinarium discotheque suicide bombing June 1, 2001 Tel Aviv 21 Hamas claimed responsibility.[10]
Dugit bombing June 22, 2001 Gaza Strip 2 Booby trapped car's explosion. Hamas claimed responsibility.
Yehud suburb bombing July 2, 2001 Tel Aviv 6 injured Explosion of two separate bombs. PFLP claimed responsibility.
Kissufim bombing July 9, 2001 Southern Gaza Strip crossing point None Explosion of two separate bombs. Hamas claimed responsibility.
Binyamina train station suicide bombing July 16, 2001 Binyamina 2 Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
Moshav Beka'ot bombing August 8, 2001 Northern Jordan Valley 1 injured Hamas claimed responsibility.
Sbarro restaurant suicide bombing August 9, 2001 Downtown Jerusalem 15 Carried out by Hamas together with Palestinian Islamic Jihad.
Wall-Street Restaurant bombing August 12, 2001 Kiryat Motzkin 21 injured Palestinian Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
Russian Compound bombing August 21, 2001 Downtown Jerusalem 1 injured Hamas claimed responsibility.
Jerusalem car bombings September 3, 2001 Jerusalem 3 injured Series of car bombs.
Hanevi'im street bombing September 4, 2001 Jerusalem 20 injured Hamas claimed responsibility.
Nahariya train station suicide bombing September 9, 2001 Nahariya train station 3 Suicide bomber was an Arab Israeli citizen. Hamas claimed responsibility.
Beit Lid junction bombing September 9, 2001 Near Netanya 17 injured Hamas claimed responsibility.
Talpiot neighborhood bombing October 1, 2001 Jerusalem None Hamas claimed responsibility.
1st Erez Crossing attack October 7, 2001 Erez Passage near Gaza None Hamas claimed responsibility.
Kibbutz Shluhot bombing October 7, 2001 Kibbutz Shluhot 1 Palestinian Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
2nd Erez Crossing attack November 26, 2001 Gaza Strip 2 injured Hamas claimed responsibility.
1st Egged bus 823 bombing November 29, 2001 Wadi Ara Junction 3 Carried out by Palestinian Islamic Jihad together with Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades.
Ben Yehuda Street Bombing December 1, 2001 Downtown Jerusalem 11 Hamas claimed responsibility.
Haifa bus 16 suicide bombing December 2, 2001 Haifa 15 Hamas claimed responsibility.
Hilton Mamilla bombing December 5, 2001 Mamilla, Jerusalem 11 injured Carried out by Palestinian Islamic Jihad together with Hamas.
Check Post Junction bombing December 9, 2001 Check Post Junction in the direction of Tel Hanan (Haifaarea) 30 injured Palestinian Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
Neve Dekalim bombing December 12, 2001 Neve Dekalim 4 injured Hamas claimed responsibility.

2002 (47 bombings)[edit]

Name Date Location Death toll Notes
Tel Aviv outdoor mall bombing January 25, 2002 Tel Aviv 25 injured Double Suicide attack, carried out by Palestinian Islamic Jihad together with Fatah.
Jaffa Street bombing January 27, 2002 Jerusalem 1 First female suicide bomber in Al-Aqsa Intifada, Wafa IdrisHamas claimed responsibility.
Tayibe bombing January 31, 2002 Tayibe None Hamas claimed responsibility.
Karnei Shomron Mall suicide bombing February 16, 2002 Karnei ShomronWest Bank 3 About 30 injuries (6 seriously). PFLP claimed responsibility.[11][12]
Maale Adumim - Jerusalem road bombing February 18, 2002 Jerusalem 1 Soldier killed by an explosive that was detonated by the driver of the car he was checking. Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades claimed responsibility.
Efrat supermarket bombing attack February 22, 2002 EfratWest Bank 1 injured Suicide bomber in supermarket.
Maccabim bombing February 27, 2002 Maccabim 3 injured Hamas claimed responsibility.
Yeshivat Beit Yisrael massacre March 2, 2002 Yeshiva in Jerusalem 11 Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades claimed responsibility.
2nd Egged bus 823 bombing March 5, 2002 Afula 1 Palestinian Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.[12]
Ariel hotel lobby bombing March 7, 2002 ArielWest Bank 15 injured (1 seriously) PFLP claimed responsibility.[12]
Café Moment bombing March 9, 2002 Rehavia, Jerusalem 11 Hamas claimed responsibility.
Egged bus 22 bombing March 17, 2002 Jerusalem 25 Injured Hamas claimed responsibility.
3rd Egged bus 823 bombing March 20, 2002 Vadi Ara, Muzmuz Junction 7 Palestinian Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
King George Street bombing March 21, 2002 Jerusalem 3 Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades claimed responsibility.
Passover massacre March 27, 2002 Netanya 30 Suicide attack on Passover seder in Park Hotel. Carried out by Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad.
Kiryat HaYovel supermarket bombing March 29, 2002 Kiryat Yovel in Jerusalem 2 Hamas claimed responsibility.
Allenby Street coffee shop bombing March 30, 2002 Tel Aviv 1 Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades claimed responsibility.
Baqa al-Gharbiyah bombing March 30, 2002 Baqa al-Gharbiyah 1 Booby-trapped vehicle that Palestinians tried to sneak into Israel.
Matza restaurant suicide bombing March 31, 2002 Haifa 15 Hamas claimed responsibility.
Efrat Medical Center March 31, 2002 EfratWest Bank 4 injured (1 seriously) Hamas claimed responsibility.
Jerusalem Roadblock bombing April 1, 2002 Jerusalem 1 Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades claimed responsibility.
Yagur Junction bombing April 10, 2002 Yagur 8 Palestinian Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
3rd Mahane Yehuda Market attack April 12, 2002 Jerusalem 6 Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades claimed responsibility.
Rishon LeZion bombing May 7, 2002 Rishon LeZion 15 Hamas claimed responsibility.
Netanya Market bombing May 19, 2002 Netanya 3 Carried out by Hamas together with PFLP.
Afula road bombing May 20, 2002 Afula None Hamas claimed responsibility.
Rothschild Street bombing May 22, 2002 Rishon Lezion 2 Hamas claimed responsibility.
Pi Glilot bombing May 23, 2002 North of Tel Aviv None A bomb exploded underneath a fuel truck. The truck burst into flames, but the blaze was quickly contained.
Studio 49 Disco bombing May 24, 2002 Tel Aviv 5 injured The security guard opened fire on a Palestinian attempting to detonate a car bomb. The Palestinian was killed, but the bomb exploded prematurely, injuring bystanders.
Petah Tikva Mall bombing May 27, 2002 Petah Tikva 2 Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades claimed responsibility.
Megiddo Junction bus bombing June 5, 2002 Megiddo Junction 17 Palestinian Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
Herzliya shawarma restaurant bombing June 11, 2002 Herzliya 1 Hamas claimed responsibility.
Patt Junction Bus Bombing June 18, 2002 Jerusalem 19 Hamas claimed responsibility.
French Hill Junction massacre June 19, 2002 French Hill, Jerusalem 7 Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades claimed responsibility.
Immanuel bus attack July 16, 2002 Emmanuel-Bnei Brak bus 189 9 Detonation of an explosive device and shooting. Hamas claimed responsibility.
Neve Shaanan Street bombing July 17, 2002 Southern Tel Aviv 5 Hamas claimed responsibility.
Nevi'im Street bombing July 30, 2002 Jerusalem 5 injured Apparently the bomb exploded prematurely.
Hebrew University massacre July 31, 2002 Hebrew University, Jerusalem 9 Included American and French casualties. Bomber was from East Jerusalem. Hamas claimed responsibility.
Meron Junction Bus 361 attack August 4, 2002 Meron Junction 9 Arab bomber with Israeli citizenship. Hamas claimed responsibility.
1st Umm al-Fahm bombing August 5, 2002 Umm al-Fahm Junction inWadi Ara 1 injured The Palestinian exploded in a taxi killing himself and wounding an Israeli-Arab driver from Nazareth.
2nd Umm al-Fahm bombing September 18, 2002 Umm al-Fahm Junction inWadi Ara 1 Palestinian Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
Allenby Street bus bombing September 19, 2002 bus 4, near the Great Synagogue, Tel Aviv 6 Hamas claimed responsibility.
Geha road bombing October 10, 2002 Bar-Ilan interchange, Geha road 1 Hamas claimed responsibility.
Karkur junction suicide bombing October 21, 2002 Carcur Junction 14 2 Suicide bombers used a booby-trapped jeep with 100 kg TNT. Palestinian Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
Sonol gas station bombing October 27, 2002 ArielWest Bank 3 Victims killed while trying to prevent the Palestinian from detonating the bomb. Hamas claimed responsibility.
Kfar Saba shopping mall bombing November 4, 2002 Kfar Saba 2 Palestinian Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
Kiryat Menachem bus bombing November 21, 2002 Kiryat Menahem, Jerusalem 11 Hamas claimed responsibility.

2003 (23 bombings)[edit]

Name Date Location Death toll Notes
Tel-Aviv central bus station massacre January 5, 2003 Southern Tel Aviv 23 Carried out by two members of the Fatah Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades, with the help of Palestinian Islamic Jihad.
Haifa bus 37 suicide bombing March 5, 2003 Carmeliya neighborhood, Haifa 17 Carried out by Hamas member and attributed to Hamas, yet never acknowledged.
London Cafe bombing March 30, 2003 Netanya 54 injured Palestinian Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
Kfar Saba train station bombing April 24, 2003 Kfar Saba 1 13 injured (2 seriously). PFLP claimed responsibility jointly with Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades.[12][13]
Mike's Place suicide bombing April 30, 2003 Mike's Place pub, Tel Aviv 3 Carried out by Hamas using a British Muslim citizen of Pakistani descent and together with al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades.
Gross square attack May 17, 2003 Gross square, HebronWest Bank 2 Hamas claimed responsibility.
Jerusalem bus 6 bombing May 18, 2003 Jerusalem 7 Hamas claimed responsibility.
3rd Kfar Darom bombing May 19, 2003 Gaza Strip 3 injured A Palestinian suicide bomber riding a bicycle blew up himself next to a military jeep. Hamas claimed responsibility.
Afula mall bombing May 19, 2003 Afula shopping center 3 Hamas claimed responsibility.
Netzarim bus bombing May 22, 2003 Netzarim, Gaza Strip 9 injured Hamas claimed responsibility.
Davidka Square bus bombing June 11, 2003 Downtown Jerusalem 17 Hamas claimed responsibility.
Sdei Trumot bombing June 19, 2003 Moshav Sdei Trumot 1 Palestinian Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
Kfar Yavetz bombing July 7, 2003 Kfar Yavetz 1 Palestinian Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
Ariel bus station bombing August 12, 2003 ArielWest Bank 2 Hamas claimed responsibility.
Rosh HaAyin bombing August 12, 2003 Rosh HaAyin 1  
Shmuel HaNavi bus bombing August 19, 2003 Shmuel Hanavi, Jerusalem 23 Hamas claimed responsibility.
Tzrifin bus stop attack September 9, 2003 Bus stop near Tzrifin army base 9 Hamas claimed responsibility.
Café Hillel bombing September 9, 2003 Hillel Cafe, Jerusalem 7 Hamas claimed responsibility.
Maxim restaurant suicide bombing October 4, 2003 Haifa 21 Palestinian Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
Tulkarem bombing October 9, 2003 TulkaremWest Bank 3 injured Hamas claimed responsibility.
Beit Hanoun Junction bombing October 15, 2003 Gaza Strip 3 The victims were part of a US diplomatic convoy.
Azzoun bombing November 3, 2003 AzzounWest Bank 1 injured Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades claimed responsibility.
Geha Interchange bus stop bombing December 25, 2003 Geha Junction 4 Over 20 injured. PFLP claimed responsibility.[12][13]

2004 (17 bombings)[edit]

Name Date Location Death toll Notes
3rd Erez Crossing attack January 14, 2004 Gaza Strip 4 Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigade and Hamas claimed joint responsibility.
Gaza Street bus bombing January 29, 2004 Rehavia, Jerusalem 11 Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigade and Hamas claimed responsibility.
Liberty Bell Park bus bombing February 22, 2004 Liberty Bell Garden, Jerusalem 8 Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigade claimed responsibility.
4th Erez Crossing attack March 6, 2004 Gaza Strip 3 The victims were Palestinian policemen who died in a shooting spree and suicide car bomb attack. Two of the vehicles exploded on the Palestinian side of the crossing. Four Palestinians were killed. There were no IDF casualties. HamasPalestinian Islamic Jihad and the military wing of Fatah claimed responsibility.  
Ashdod Port massacre March 14, 2004 Port of Ashdod 10 Double suicide bombing. Carried out by Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigade together with Hamas.  
5th Erez Crossing attack April 17, 2004 Erez Crossing, Gaza Strip 1 Carried out by Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigade together with Hamas.
Deir al-Balah suicide attack April 26, 2004 Gaza Strip 2 The victims were Palestinians killed when a suicide bomber detonated himself on the way to carry out an attack in Israel.
Beka'ot checkpoint bombing May 22, 2004 Beka'ot checkpoint,Jordan ValleyWest Bank 1 injured PFLP claimed responsibility.[12][14]
Tel Aviv bus stop bombing July 11, 2004 Tel Aviv 1 Hamas claimed responsibility.
Kalandia checkpoint attack August 11, 2004 KalandiaWest Bank 2 The victims were Palestinian bystanders. 18 people (including six Border Policemen) were injured.
Beersheba bus bombings August 31, 2004 DowntownBeersheba on buses 7 and 12 16 Hamas claimed responsibility.
Baka al-Sharkiyeh checkpoint attack September 8, 2004 Near the Green Lineborder with the West Bank None Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades claimed responsibility.
Kalandia Gate suicide bombing September 14, 2004 South of Kalandia,West Bank 2 injured A suicide bomber riding on a bicycle blew himself up near an armored IDF jeep at an agricultural gate.
French Hill Junction bombing September 22, 2004 French Hill, Jerusalem 2 Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades claimed responsibility.
Sinai bombings October 7, 2004 Sinai peninsula,Egypt 34 Suicide bombing at two Sinai holiday resorts frequented by Israeli tourists: thirty-one died at the Taba Hilton and three at Ras a-Satan. Among the dead were 12 Israelis; over 120 were wounded. The attack was masterminded by Iyad Saleh and carried out by a Palestinian group.
Carmel Market bombing November 1, 2004 Tel Aviv 3 Over 30 injured. PFLP claimed responsibility.[12][15]
Karni Crossing attack December 7, 2004 Karni Crossing, Gaza Strip 1 An IDF soldier of the Oketz canine unit was killed by a bomb, along with his dog, when a booby-trapped chicken coup exploded northwest of the Karni Crossing. Four soldiers were wounded in the exchange of fire while evacuating him. Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack.

2005 (9 bombings)[edit]

Name Date Location Death toll Notes
Morag attack January 12, 2005 Morag, Southern Gaza Strip 1 One Israeli civilian was killed and three IDF soldiers wounded when a bomb was detonated against a military vehicle patrolling the route near Morag. Two Palestinians were killed by IDF forces. The area was booby-trapped with explosive devices, in addition to the bomb that exploded. Palestinian Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
Karni border crossing attack January 13, 2005 Karni crossing, Gaza Strip 6 Carried out together by Hamas with Fatah Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades and Popular Resistance Committees.
Gush Katif checkpoint attack January 18, 2005 Gush Katif, Gaza Strip 1 Hamas claimed responsibility.
Stage Club bombing February 25, 2005 Tel Aviv sea promenade 5 Carried out together with Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades and with Hizballah involvement.
1st HaSharon Mall suicide bombing July 12, 2005 Netanya 5 Palestinian Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
Beersheba central bus station bombing August 28, 2005 Beersheba 50 injured, 2 critically Carried out by Palestinian Islamic Jihad together with Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades.
Hadera Market bombing October 26, 2005 Hadera 7 Palestinian Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
2nd HaSharon Mall suicide bombing December 5, 2005 Netanya 5 Palestinian Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
Tulkarem roadblock bombing December 29, 2005 NearTulkarem,West Bank 3 One Israeli soldier was killed when a Palestinian en route to carry out an attack in Israel was discovered and detonated himself at a checkpoint. A second intended suicide bomber was also killed in the blast as well as the driver and a third passenger. Three soldiers and seven Palestinians were also wounded.

2006 (3 bombings)[edit]

Name Date Location Death toll Notes
1st Rosh Ha'ir restaurant bombing January 19, 2006 Near Tel Aviv old central bus station 31 injured Palestinian Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility.
Kedumim bombing March 30, 2006 KdumimWest Bank 4 Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades claimed responsibility.
2nd Rosh Ha'ir restaurant bombing April 17, 2006 Near Tel Aviv old central bus station 11 68 injured. Carried out by Palestinian Islamic Jihad together with Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades.

2007 (1 bombing)[edit]

Name Date Location Death toll Notes
Eilat bakery bombing January 29, 2007 Eilat 3 Both Palestinian Islamic Jihad and Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades claim joint responsibility.

2008 (2 bombings)[edit]

Name Date Location Death toll Notes
Dimona bombing February 4, 2008 Dimona 1 9 injuries. Carried out by Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades together with Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP).[16]
Kerem Shalom suicide bombing April 19, 2008 Kerem Shalom border crossing, Gaza Strip 13 injured Three Palestinian suicide bombers broke through the border fence to attack the Kerem Shalom IDF post, blowing themselves up and wounding several Israeli soldiers. Hamas claimed responsibility.

Total number of fatalities, by year

Religious Persecution of Jews by Arabs

Before the Jewish state was established, 
there existed nothing to harm good relations 
between Arabs and Jews. 
-- The late King Faisal of Saudi Arabia, 
November 1973, to Henry Kissinger

We are not against the Jews. 
On the contrary, we are all Semites 
and we have been living with each 
other in peace and fraternity, Muslims, 
Jews and Christians, for many centuries. 
-Yasser Arafat, head of the PLO


Since the rebirth of Israel, hundreds of thousands of Jews from Arab lands have swarmed into the new state. In 1948 more than 850,000 Jews lived in the Arab world. Today there are fewer than 29,000, a shadow of the former ancient community. Most of those Jewish refugees fled to Israel. Where did they come from with such urgency -- and why?

Contrary to the myth that Jews lived in harmony with the Arabs before the Zionist state, innumerable authoritative works document decisively the subjugation, ppression, and spasmodic anti-Jewish eruptions of violence that darkened the existence of the Jews in Muslim Arab countries.

In truth, before the seventh-century advent of the Prophet Muhammad and Islam, Jews and Arabs did have harmonious relations, and words of praise regarding the noble virtues of the Jews may be found in ancient Arab literature.1

Before the Arab conquest, in fact, some rulers of Arabia "had indeed embraced Judaism," as Muslim historians attest.

The Koran itself has been witness to the Jewish nature of the "Israelite communities of Arabia": Koranic references appear about the rabbis and the Torah which they read, and the prestige and reverence with which the earlier community viewed them.2

The Koran contains so many legends and theological ideas found in Talmudic literature that we are able to draw a picture of the spiritual life of the Jews with whom Mohammad must have come into contact.3

It was the Prophet Muhammad himself who attempted to negate the positive titage of the Jew that had been prevalent earlier. According to historian Bernard Lewis, the Prophet Muhammad's original plan had been to induce the Jews to adopt Islam;4 when Muhammad began his rule at Medina in A.D. 622 he counted few supporters, so he adopted several Jewish practices-including daily prayer facing toward Jerusalem and the fast of Yom Kippur-in the hope of wooing the Jews. But the Jewish community rejected the Prophet Muhammad's religion, preferring to adhere to its own beliefs, whereupon Muhammad subsequently substituted Mecca for Jerusalem, and dropped many of the Jewish practices.

Three years later, Arab hostility against the Jews commenced, when the  Meccan army exterminated the Jewish tribe of Quraiza.5 As a result of the Prophet Muhammad's resentment, the Holy Koran itself contains many of his hostile denunciations of Jews6 and bitter attacks upon the Jewish tradition, which undoubtedly have colored the beliefs of religious Muslims down to the present.

Omar, the caliph who succeeded Muhammad, delineated in his Charter of Omar the twelve laws under which a dhimmi, or non-Muslim, was allowed to exist as a "nonbeliever" among "believers." The Charter codified the conditions of life for Jews under Islam -- a life which was forfeited if the dhimmi broke this law. Among the restrictions of the Charter: Jews were forbidden to touch the Koran; forced to wear a distinctive (sometimes dark blue or black) habit with sash; compelled to wear a yellow piece of cloth as a badge (blue for Christians); not allowed to perform their religious practices in public; not allowed to own a  horse, because horses were deemed noble; not permitted to drink wine in public; and required to bury their dead without letting their grief be heard by the Muslims.7

As a grateful payment for being allowed so to live and be "protected," a dhimmi paid a special head tax and a special property tax, the edict for which came directly from the Koran: "Fight against those [Jews and Christians] who believe not in Allah ... until they pay the tribute readily, being brought low."8

In addition, Jews faced the danger of incurring the wrath of a Muslim, in which case the Muslim could charge, however falsely, that the Jew had cursed Islam, an accusation against which the Jew could not defend himself Islamic religious law decreed that, although murder of one Muslim by another Muslim was punishable by death, a Muslim who murdered a non-Muslim was given not the death penalty, but only the obligation to pay "blood money" to the family of the slain infidel. Even this punishment was unlikely, however, because the law held the testimony of a Jew or a Christian invalid against a Muslim, and the penalty could only be exacted under improbable conditions-when two Muslims were willing to testify against a brother Muslim for the sake of an infidel.9

The demeanment of Jews as represented by the Charter has carried down through the centuries, its implementation inflicted with varying degrees of cruelty or inflexibility, depending upon the character of the particular Muslim ruler. When that rule was tyrannical, life was abject slavery, as in Yemen, where one of the Jews' tasks was to clean the city latrines and another was to clear the streets of animal carcasses-without pay, often on their Sabbath.

The restrictions under Muslim law always included the extra head tax regardless of the ruler's relative tolerance. This tax was enforced in some form until 1909 in Egypt, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and Turkey; until 1925 in Iran; and was still enforceable in Yemen until the present generation. The clothing as well as the tax and the physical humiliation also varied according to whim. Thus, in Morocco, Jews had to wear black slippers,10 while in Yemen, Jewish women were forced to wear one white and one black shoe.11*

[* The edict set by the Sultan of Morocco in 1884 varies somewhat, as did most interpretations of the dhimma law. His restrictions also included insistence that Jews work on their sacred day of rest; carry heavy burdens on their backs; work without pay; clean foul places and latrines; part with merchandise at half price; lend beasts of burden without payment; accept false coinage instead of negotiable currency; take fresh skins in return for tanned hides; hold their beds and furniture at the disposal of government guests, etc.]

Jews were relegated to Arab-style Jewish ghettos -- hara, mellah, or simply Jewish Quarter were the names given the areas where Jews resided -- recorded by travelers over the centuries, as well as by Jewish chroniclers. A visitor to four-teenth-century Egypt, for example, commented in passing12on the separate Jew-quarter, and five hundred years later another visitor in the nineteenth century verified the continuation of the separated Jewish existence: "There are in this country about five thousand Jews (in Arabic, called 'Yahood'; singular, 'Yahoodee'), most of whom reside in the metropolis, in a miserable, close and dirty quarter, intersected by lanes, many of which are so narrow as hardly to admit two persons passing each other in them."13

In 1920, those Jewish families in Cairo whose financial success had allowed them out of the ghetto, under relatively tolerant rule, had been replaced by "poor Jewish immigrants." Thus, although the character of the population may have changed, the squalor and crowding remained. As one writer, a Jew, observed:

Our people are crowded and clustered into houses about to collapse, in dark cellars, narrow alleys and crooked lanes choked with mud and stinking refuse, earning their meagre living in dark shops and suffocating workshops, toiling back to back, sunscorched and sleepless. Their hard struggle for existence both inside and outside the home is rewarded by a few beans and black bread.14
Under no circumstances were Jews considered truly equal. Among the Jews in Arab lands were many individual personal successes and regionalized intermittent prosperity, but the tradition of persecution was characteristic throughout most of Jewish history under Arab rule.15 If the dhimmi burdens were light in one particular region, the Jew had the residue of fear left from the previous history of pogroms and humiliations in his area. These harsh and ancient dhimma restrictions persisted even up to the present time to some degree, in some Arab communities, and their spirit -- if not their letter -- continued generally throughout the Arab world.16

Throughout the centuries, the Jews were the first to suffer persecution in times of economic turmoil or political upheaval,17 and the cumulative effect of the sporadic mass murders left their mark on the Jews even in periods of relative quiescence. In Syria, the infamous blood libel of 1840 brought about the death, torture, and pillage of countless Jews falsely accused of murdering a priest and his servant to collect the blood for Passover matzoth!18 Before the Jews were finally vindicated of this slander, word of the charges had spread far from Damascus, causing terror in numerous Jewish communities.

The scurrilous blood libel has not been purged from Arab literature, however. In fact, the Arabs seem in the past two decades to have seized upon this primitive old calumny with renewed vigor. In 1962 the UAR (Egyptian) Ministry of Education published "Human Sacrifices in the Talmud" as one of a series of official "national" books. Bearing on its cover the symbol of the Egyptian Institute for Publications, this modem book is a reprint of an 1890 work by a writer in Cairo.19 In the introduction, the editor shares his discovery: "conclusive evidence ... that this people permits bloodshed and makes it a religious obligation laid down by the Talmud." The editor's description becomes more vile as it purports to become more explicit regarding the "Indictment."20

Two years later, in 1964, a professor at the University of Damascus published his own affirmation of the nineteenth-century blood libel, stating that the wide attention given the story served a valid purpose: to wam mothers against letting their children out late at night, "lest the Jew ... come and take their blood for the purpose of making matzot for Passover."21Still another version, also published in the 1960s, "The Danger of World Jewry to Islam and Christianity," alleges that thousands of children and others disappear each year, and all of them are victims of guess who?22

They've even dramatized the infamous canard for the theater. In November 1973, a former minister in the Egyptian Foreign Service published a play based on the 1840 blood libel in Damascus-replete with gory descriptions-in a widely circulated Egyptian weekly.23  During the same month the late Saudi Arabian King Faisal stressed the importance of the blood libel of 1840 in Damascus as a requisite to understanding "Zionist crime."24 And in 1982, shortly after Israel transferred its much coveted Sinai territory to Egypt for a more coveted peace, the Egyptian press (govemment-run) dredged up inflammatory variations on the horrible theme. Two examples: ". . . The Israelis are Israelis and their favorite drink is Arab blood... ."25and "A Jew ... drinks their blood for a few coins."26

The departure of European colonists in the twentieth century brought into being a highly nationalistic group of Arab states, which increasingly perceived their Jews as a new political threat.* The previous Arab Muslim ambivalence -- an ironic possessive attitude toward "their" Jews, coupled with the omnipresent implementing of the harsh dhimma law -- was gradually replaced by a completely demoniacal and negative stereotype of the Jew. Traditional Koranic slurs against the Jews were implemented to incite hostility toward the Jewish national movement. The Nazi anti-Semitism in the 1930s and 1940s flourished in this already receptive climate.

[* The Arab reaction seems not dissimilar to that of a Ku Klux Klansman in the United States, responding vehemently to the question I once asked about his attitude toward integration: "They're our 'Niggers,' and we've taken good care of'em, but I'll be damned if I'll let 'em take over.... Our 'Niggers' don't really wanna vote, y'know." (The epithet is his.) Chicago Daily News, April 10, 1965.]

Although Arabs themselves frequently speak of "anti-Semitism" as synonymous with anti-Jewishness -- before the 1947 partition, for example, Egyptian UN Representative Haykal Pasha warned the General Assembly that partition would bring "anti-Semitism" worse than Hitler's27 -- frequently they justify or obscure an anti-Jewish action by saying, "How can I be anti-Semitic? I'm a Semite myself." According to Professor S. D. Goitein, "the word 'semitic' was coined by an l8th-century German scholar, concerned with linguistics.... The idea of a Semitic race was invented and cultivated in particular in order to emphasize the inalterable otherness and alien character of the Jews living in Europe."28

Another eminent Arabist, Bernard Lewis, dates the invention of the term "anti-Semitism" to 1862, although "the racial ideology that gave rise to it was already well established in the early 19th century. Instead of -- or as well as -- an unbeliever ... the Jew was now labeled as a member of an alien and inferior race... "29]

As early as 1940 the Muffi of Jerusalem requested the Axis powers to acknowledge the Arab right "to settle the question of Jewish elements in Palestine and other Arab countries in accordance with the national and racial interests of the Arabs and along lines similar to those used to solve the Jewish question in Germany and Italy."30*

[* For a discussion of Jewish-Arab relations in Palestine, see The Myth of Palestinian Nationalism, narrowly defined, anti-Semitism]

Hitler's crimes against the Jews have frequently been justified in Arab writings and pronouncements. In the 1950s, Minister Anwar Sadat published an open letter to Hitler, hoping he was still alive and sympathizing with his cause. Important Arab writers and political figures have said Hitler was "wronged and slandered, for he did no more to the Jews than Pharaoh, Nebuchadnezzar, the Romans, the Byzantines, Titus, Mohammed and the European peoples who slaughtered the Jews before him." Or that Hitler wanted to "save ... the world from this malignant evil..." 31

Arab defense of the Nazis' extermination of the Jews has persisted: prominent Egyptian writer Anis Mansour wrote in 1973 that "People all over the world have come to realize that Hitler was right, since Jews . . . are bloodsuckers . . . interested in destroying the whole world which has . . . expelled them and despised them for centuries ... and burnt them in Hitler's crematoria ... one million ... six millions. Would that he had finished it!"32

Mansour alleged at another time that the vicious medieval blood libel was historical truth: "the Jews confessed" that they had killed the children and used their blood; thus he justifies persecution and pogroms of "the wild beasts."33 That article was followed by a "report," after Mansour returned from representing Egypt at the Fortieth International PEN (writers') Conference in 1975 in Vienna. In it, Mansour continued the theme: "The Jews are guilty" for Nazism; ". . . the world can only curse the Jews ... The Jews have only themselves to blame." Mansour was angry that "the whole world" protested "all because" a "teacher" told the Jewish waiter serving him in Vienna that      Hitler committed a grave error in not doing away with more of you ....'"34

It was from such a climate that the Jews had escaped, seeking refuge in Israel. 
 

1. Bernard Lewis, The Arabs in History, 4th rev. ed. (New York, Evanston, San Francisco, London: Harper-Colophon Books, 1966), pp. 31-32; S.D. Goitein, A Mediterranean Society, vols. I and 11 (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: 197-1), p. 28; see also H.Z. Hirschberg, The Jews in Islamic Lands, 2nd rev. ed. (Leiden, 1974).

2.S.D. Goitein, Jews and Arabs, Their Contacts Through the Ages, 3rd ed. (New York: Schocken Books, 1974), p. 49.

3. Ibid., p. 50.

4.Lewis, Arabs in History, p. 42; also see Norman A. Stillman, The Jews ofArab Lands.- A History and Source Book (Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1979), pp. 113-114. For further information and fascinating reading, the Stillman work provides new and in-depth insights into the "Jewish social history in the Arab world, spanning 1500 years," with original translations from Arabic and other languages.

5. Lewis, Arabs in History, p. 45, pp. 38-48. See Chapter 8.

6.See examples in Chapter 4; also see Stillman, The Jews, "Some Koranic Pronouncements on the Jews," pp. 150-151.

7.Andre Chouraqui, Between East and West, A History of the Jews of North Africa, trans. from French by Michael M. Bernet (Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1968), pp. 45-46; D.G. Littman, Jews Under Muslim Rule in the Late Nineteenth Century, reprinted from the Weiner Library Bulletin, 1975, vol. XXVIII, New Series Nos. 35/36 (London, 1975), p. 65.

8.The Meaning of the Glorious Koran, Surah IX, v. 29, Mohammed Marmaduke Pickthall, ed. (New York: Mentor Books, 1953).

9.Chouraqui, Between East and West, p. 46. Also see Hayyim Cohen, The Jews of the Middle East 1860-1972 (New York, 1973); S.D. Goitein, Jews and Arabs.

10. World Jewish Congress, The Jews ofFrench Morocco and Tunisia (New York, 1952).

11. Saul Friedman, "The Myth of Arab Toleration," Midstream, January 1970; Goitein, Jews and Arabs, p. 67T

12. Ibn Battuta, Ibn Battuta Travels in Asia and Africa 1325-1354, trans. and selected with introduction and notes by H.A.R. Gibb (London, 1929), p. 125.

13. Edward William Lane, Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians 1833-1835 (London, New York, Melbourne: 1890), p. 512.

14. The visit to Harat al-Yahud, Cairo's Jewish Quarter, was recorded in letters from a journalist in Arabic dated June I I and June 18, 1920, cited by Jacob M. Landau, Jews in Nineteenth Century Egypt (New York, 1969), pp. 30-31.

15. Hayyim J. Cohen, The Jews ofthe Middle East 1860-1972 (Jerusalem, 1973), pp. 1-3.

16. See interviews in Chapter 6.

17. Goitein, Jews and Arabs, pp. 6-7, 87, 88, for examples.

18. Heinrich Graetz, History of the Jews, 5 vols. (New York, 1927), vol. 5, pp. 634-639.

19. By Habib Faris, 1890, original title in newspaper, 1890: "The Cry of the Innocent with the Trumpet of Freedom," originally published in Egyptian newspaper al-Mahrusa, then as 1890 book, Human Sacrifices in the Talmud Book republished in 1962 as one of a series of information pamphlets, "National Books," no. 184, 1962, 164 pages, listed as one of the publications by UAR Ministry of Education, # 393 1, edited by Abd a]-Ati Jalal, introduction dated June 16, 1962. Cited by Y. Harkabi, Arab Attitudes to Israel (Jerusalem, 1971), pp. 270-271.

20. Ibid., cited in Harkabi, Arab Attitudes, p. 271.

21.Abd al-Karim Gharayiba, Suriyyafi al-Qarn al-TosiAshar 1840-1876 (Cairo, 1961-62), p. 47, cited by Moshe Ma'oz, The Image of the Jew in Official Arab Literature and Communications Media (Jerusalem, 1976), p. 21.

22. 'Abdallah al-Tall, The Danger of World Jewry to Islam and Christianity (in Arabic) (Cairo, 1964), p. 104, cited by Harkabi, Arab Attitudes, pp. 273-274.

23. Mustafa Sa'adani, "The Tragedy of Good Father Thomas," Akhir Saah, November 28, 1973, cited by Ma'oz, The Image of the Jew, p. 22.

24. AI-Soyyad, November 29, 1973, as cited by Ma'oz, The Image of the Jew, p. 23.

25."Sanctifying War and Hating Peace," by Salem al-Yamani, Al-Gumhuriya, June 22, 1982.

26."The Arabs and the Jews-Who Will Destroy Whom?" by Dr. Lutfi Abd Al-Azim, AI-Ahram Iktisadi, September 27, 1982.

27. Official Records of the Second Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations. Summary Record of Meetings 25 September-25 November, 1947, p. 185. During the proposed partition of Palestine, in November, 1947, Egyptian Representative in the United Nations General Assembly, Haykal Pasha, declared that "The Arab governments will do all in their power to defend the Jewish citizens in their countries, but we all know that an excited crowd is sometimes stronger than the police. Unintentionally, you are about to spark an anti-Semitic fire in the Middle East which will be more difficult to extinguish than it was in Germany." The Egyptian spokesman's threat made clear that the Arab world has interpreted the term "anti-Semitism" correctly -- in the only sense it has been used historically -as a definition of anti-Jewish attitude and action. Arabs do not, as Egypt's President Sadat and others have occasionally claimed, use it themselves as a term connoting both Arabs and Jews.

28. Goitein, Mediterranean Society, vol. II, p. 283.

29.Bernard Lewis, Islam in History: Ideas, Men and Events in the Middle East (New York: The Library Press, 1973), p. 136.

30. Fritz Grobba, Manner und Machte im Orient (Zurich, Berlin, Frankfurt, 1967), p. 194-197, 207-208. Bernard Lewis notes that "this draft was an Arab request to the Germans, not a German offer to the Arabs." Also see: Jon Kimche, The Second Arab Awakening (London, 1970); L. Hirszowicz, The Third Reich and the Arab East (London, 1966), particularly regarding Mufti's 1937 contact with the Nazis: p. 34.

31. Sadat's letter, AlMusawwar, No. 1510, September 18,1953, cited in D.F. Green, ed., Arab Theologians on Jews and Israel (Geneva, 1976 ed.), p. 87. Quoted also by Gideon Hausner, November 16, 1971, at New York. Also see Harkabi, Arab Attitudes, pp. 276-277, for other examples.

32. Al-Akhbar, August 19, 1973.

33. Akhar Saah, Cairo, April 10, 1974, cited by Ma'oz, The Image of the Jew, p. 22.

34. Akhar Saah, Cairo, December 3, 1975.

This page was produced by Joseph E. Katz 
Middle Eastern Political and Religious History Analyst  
Brooklyn, New York  
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Source: "From Time Immemorial" by Joan Peters, 1984
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The Niggers Of Palestine

 
Originally posted October 21, 2007
Like the miserable dog without an owner he is kicked by one because he crosses his path, and cuffed by another because he cries out--to seek redress he is afraid, lest it bring worse upon him; he thinks it better to endure than to live in the expectation of his complaint being revenged upon him. Brought up form infancy to look upon his civil disabilities everywhere as a mark of degradation, he heart becomes the cradle of fear and suspicion--he finds he is trusted by none--and thee he lives himself without confidence in any
British Counsel Young, describing life for Jews under Muslim rule in Palestine in 1839, quoted by Joan Peters in 'From Time Immemorial', p. 187
In one chapter in her book, From Time Immemorial: The Origins of the Arab-Jewish Conflict over Palestine, Joan Peters writes about the countless attacks and massacres suffered by the Jewish community in 'Palestine' at the hands of the Muslims over the centuries before the reestablishment of the state of Israel. At one point, Peters writes:
The Jews under siege were as defenseless as their counterparts in the Arabic-speaking Muslim "Arab" world and as powerless as perhaps the black slaves called "Niggers" by the Southern whites--they too "knew what was good for them," and any attempt at redress for their grievances would only result in more extreme persecution. Both had to "keep their place." [p. 183]
This reminded me of Condoleezza's comment comparing Palestinian Arabs with African Americans in the old South. Before addressing Rice's comparison, here are some of the events that Peters mentions in her book that form the basis for her comparison:




1491: Bohemian pilgrim writes about Jerusalem that "There are not many Christians but there are many Jews, and these the Moslems persecute in various ways. Christians and Jews go about in Jerusalem in clothes considered fit only for wandering beggars....in spite of all the troubles and sorrows inflicted on them by the Moslems, they refuse to leave the Land." [p. 176]

1576: Ottoman Sultan Murad III enacts legislation to uproot and deport 1,000 of Safed's Jews to Cyprus to boost the economy. [p. 178]

1586: Last remaining synagogue in Jerusalem is expropriated. [p. 178]

Early 17th century: A pair of Christian visitors to Safed describe life for Jews that "life here is the poorest and most miserable that one can imagine...[and] pay for the very air they breathe" [p. 178]

1660: Jewish community in Safed is massacred. [p. 178]

1742: A rabbi is allowed to settle in Tiberias and his arrival "brought back the Jewish community of Tiberias, which had been virtually purged of Jews for seventy years" [p. 179]

1775: Blood libel is spread against Jews in Hebron, resulting in mob violence. [p. 179]

1783: Rise of El Djezzar ("the butcher"). He increases--by 25,000 piastres--the required taxes. He is known for torture, mutilations, and had an executioner travel with him. [p. 179-180]

1799: Safed's Jewish Quarter "was completely sacked by the Turks" [p. 179]

1801: Djezzar sends troops to destroy crops in Nazareth while in Ramleh "during the three days of pillage, the local Latin Christians were either murdered, or lost all their property and fled" [p. 180]

1830's: During Egyptian reign of Palestine, Pasha Mehmet Ali "oppressed the inhabitants of these countries more severly even than those of his own pashalic [district] in order to fill his coffers." [p. 182]

1830's "One book reported the game 'Burn the Jew,' a Christian-Arab children's pastime at Lent in Jaffa. [p. 1888]

1834: Egyptian ruler Ibrahim Pasha levies conscription and when those in Eastern Palestine cross the Jordan to join in a revolt, "forty thousand fallahim rushed on Jerusalem...the mob entered, and looted the city for five or six days. The Jews were the worst sufferers, their homes ewere sacked and their women violated." [p. 183]

1834: Jews in Hebron are massacred by "Egyptian soldiers who came to put down a local Muslim rebellion" [p. 183]

1834: In Safed, the Jewish community is "brutally attacked by Muslim and Druzes" [p. 183]

1834: In Safed, Muhammed Damoor 'prophesies' that on the 15th of June "the true Believers would rise up in just wrath against the Jews, and despoil them of their gold, and their silver, and their jewels"--this becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy. [p. 185-6]

1837: Safed is hit by an earthquake which results in another attack by the Muslims on the Jews. [p. 183]

1840: Blood libel in Damascus has repercussions in Palestine. [p. 183]

1840: British Foreign Secretary Palmerston writes that "reports from Sidon, Tyre, Acre and Caiffa [Haifa] complain of bigotry and outrages toward Christians: Confirmed by what is observed here in Jerusalem towards Christians and Jews." [p. 189]

1847: Charge of ritual murder is brought against the Jewish community in Jerusalem. [p. 190]

1847: Jewish visitor to Palestine writes about the Jewish community "They do not have any protection and are at the mercy of policemen and the pashas who treat them as they wish...they pay various taxes every now and then...their property is not at their disposal and they dare not complain about an injury for fear of the Arabs' revenge. Their lives are precarious and subject to daily danger of death" [p. 190-1]

1848 Hebron plundered. [p. 191]

1848-1878: Reports from the British Consulate in Jerusalem document scores of anti-Jewish violence. Example--"July, 1851: It is my duty to report to YOur Excellency that the Jws in Hebron have been greatly alarmed by threats of the Moslems there at the commencement of Ramadan..."

1858: Muslim in Hebron is confronted with his theft and vandalism of Jews and responds that "his right derived from time immemorial in his family, to enter Jewish houses, and take toll or contributions at any time without giving account" [p. 173]
Rice's comments are found in an article in Haaretz, which currently seems to turn up as a blank page [update:view article here], but which is quoted by Israel Matzav:

When Condoleezza Rice talks about the establishment of a Palestinian state next to Israel, she sees in her mind's eye the struggle of African Americans for equal rights, which culminated in the period of her Alabama childhood.

Rice is very aware of political sensitivity, and avoids making such comparisons in public speeches and interviews, where she keeps to the official list of talking points. But in private, she talks about the segregated buses of her childhood.

One can guess that the settlements, the checkpoints and the separation fences created by Israel on the West Bank bring back unpleasant memories of Jim Crow racial separation in the South.Her empathy for the suffering of the Palestinians under occupation goes beyond the strict interests of the administration in promoting the status of the United States in the Middle East and has the touch of her personal experience.

...Now, Rice is comparing Palestinian Authority Chairman Mahmoud Abbas and his prime minister, Salam Fayad, to Martin Luther King. [emphasis added by Israel Matzav]
Why Rice would want to degrade the memory by comparing him to someone like Abbas I do not know, but to compare Palestinian Arabs with the situation of African Americans in the US--even in the 1960's? Rice, who has erroneously claimed that Palestinian Arabs controlled Gaza and the West Bank prior to 1967, obviously is ignorant of other aspects of the lives of Palestinian Arabs as well--

As Efraim Karsh recounts:

The larger part, still untold in all its detail, is of the astounding social and economic progress made by the Palestinian Arabs under Israeli "oppression." At the inception of the occupation, conditions in the territories were quite dire. Life expectancy was low; malnutrition, infectious diseases, and child mortality were rife; and the level of education was very poor. Prior to the 1967 war, fewer than 60 percent of all male adults had been employed, with unemployment among refugees running as high as 83 percent. Within a brief period after the war, Israeli occupation had led to dramatic improvements in general well-being, placing the population of the territories ahead of most of their Arab neighbors.

In the economic sphere, most of this progress was the result of access to the far larger and more advanced Israeli economy: the number of Palestinians working in Israel rose from zero in 1967 to 66,000 in 1975 and 109,000 by 1986, accounting for 35 percent of the employed population of the West Bank and 45 percent in Gaza. Close to 2,000 industrial plants, employing almost half of the work force, were established in the territories under Israeli rule.

During the 1970's, the West Bank and Gaza constituted the fourth fastest-growing economy in the world-ahead of such "wonders" as Singapore, Hong Kong, and Korea, and substantially ahead of Israel itself. Although GNP per capita grew somewhat more slowly, the rate was still high by international standards, with per-capita GNP expanding tenfold between 1968 and 1991 from $165 to $1,715 (compared with Jordan's $1,050, Egypt's $600, Turkey's $1,630, and Tunisia's $1,440).By 1999, Palestinian per-capita income was nearly double Syria's, more than four times Yemen's, and 10 percent higher than Jordan's (one of the better off Arab states). Only the oil-rich Gulf states and Lebanon were more affluent.

Under Israeli rule, the Palestinians also made vast progress in social welfare. Perhaps most significantly, mortality rates in the West Bank and Gaza fell by more than two-thirds between 1970 and 1990, while life expectancy rose from 48 years in 1967 to 72 in 2000 (compared with an average of 68 years for all the countries of the Middle East and North Africa). Israeli medical programs reduced the infant-mortality rate of 60 per 1,000 live births in 1968 to 15 per 1,000 in 2000 (in Iraq the rate is 64, in Egypt 40, in Jordan 23, in Syria 22). And under a systematic program of inoculation, childhood diseases like polio, whooping cough, tetanus, and measles were eradicated.

No less remarkable were advances in the Palestinians' standard of living. By 1986, 92.8 percent of the population in the West Bank and Gaza had electricity around the clock, as compared to 20.5 percent in 1967; 85 percent had running water in dwellings, as compared to 16 percent in 1967; 83.5 percent had electric or gas ranges for cooking, as compared to 4 percent in 1967; and so on for refrigerators, televisions, and cars.

Finally, and perhaps most strikingly, during the two decades preceding the intifada of the late 1980's, the number of schoolchildren in the territories grew by 102 percent, and the number of classes by 99 percent, though the population itself had grown by only 28 percent. Even more dramatic was the progress in higher education. At the time of the Israeli occupation of Gaza and the West Bank, not a single university existed in these territories. By the early 1990's, there were seven such institutions, boasting some 16,500 studentsIlliteracy rates dropped to 14 percent of adults over age 15, compared with 69 percent in Morocco, 61 percent in Egypt, 45 percent in Tunisia, and 44 percent in Syria.

All this, as I have noted, took place against the backdrop of Israel's hands-off policy in the political and administrative spheres [emphasis added].
In the aftermath of the intifada and terrorist attacks by which Palestinian Arabs have brought about their current situation--in addition to the Muslim members of the Israeli Knesset (whose membership is not revoked after meeting terrorists), the rights of Palestinian Arabs are protected by the Israeli Supreme Court. Here are some of its recent rulings:

Israel high court orders partial re-routing of West Bank security barrier

Israel high court overturns blanket Palestinian student entry ban

Israel high court allows Palestinians injured by IDF to sue for compensation

Israel orders full review of security barrier after high court ruling

Israeli police evacuate illegal West Bank settlement after high court ruling
Of course, if Condoleezza Rice is really interested in the struggle for the equal rights of unprotected minorities,she can always talk to her friends:

The Arab or Middle Eastern slave trade continued into the early 1900s[84], and by some accounts continues to this day. As recently as the 1950s, Saudi Arabia had an estimated 450,000 slaves, 20% of the population.[85] [86]
The situation is not black and white, but it might help if the person leading delicate negotiations between Israel and Palestinian Arabs--leading to a state adjacent to Israel--at least had some grasp of the history of the area.

Condoleezza Rice is clearly not that person.








 

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